Geological tour of Santorini
Geological studies show that the first volcanic activity in the general region of Santorini began about 2.5 million years ago and created the complex of Christians. In the narrow area of Santorini, the volcano was active about 1 million years ago and within the last 400,000 years it exploded paroxystically at least 12 times.
These explosions occur every 20,000 years and create huge craters of collapse. Between the eruptions that destroy the island, milder intervals of various duration are inserted, during which a lot of eruptions of lesser extent rebuild it slowly.
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The succession of explosions
Santorini’s volcanic activity affects a tectonic fault that begins with the Christians, passes from Santorini and ends up in Amorgos. This point remains active and is the cause of the 1956 earthquake.
The volcanic development of Santorini follows, therefore, a circular succession of explosions.
For many millennia, the volcano has been active without paroxysmal events. The lava that in the meantime accumulates, expands and gradually elevates through the volcanic cones. The higher they ascend, however, the longer the magma must follow the path to come to the surface, the more difficult it escapes, and the more premature it is favored in the cones. Gradually, the Thira magma cools and solidifies into the cones before it reaches the surface, blocking the craters.
After clogging, there is a long period of relative silence, during which large amounts of magma are trapped in underground spaces and increase escape pressure, which is extinguished every now and then, though not enough, by small bursts of explosive resources. But when the pressure in the underground spaces exceeds the weight and the consistency of the overlying cones in strength, then the magma opens to the surface with paroxysmal intensity, crushing and blowing up all the obstacles on its way. Together with the magma comes out superheated steam, spilled on the surface and transformed into water vapor.
The last two paroxysmal eruptions in Santorini occurred about 21 and 3.6 thousand years ago, respectively. The latter is placed in the Minoan period and more specifically in the second half of the 17th century BC. century.
The caldera of Santorini, however, was not formed at the time. It was gradually created by many precipitations at different times of volcanic action, which formed the geomorphology of the island from time to time. Santorini transfers is the best way to explore the island.
Find out the beauty and the uniqueness of Santorini by booking now one of the following Santorini tours:
- Santorini full day private tour
- Santorini sightseeing private tour
- Santorini exclusive shore private tour
- Santorini impressive Caldera private tour
- Santorini south part private tour
- Santorini north part private tour
- Santorini historical private tour
The Kouloumpos volcano
This submarine volcano is located 6.5 km southeast of the island of Santorini. It was discovered in 1650, during a volcanic eruption lasting 2-3 months (from September to December 1650). An islet appeared at the point of the underwater explosion, but a little later disappeared.
Today, the 18 meter long Koulbubo reef is the shallowest point of the underwater volcano cone, which has a diameter of 1.5 kilometers and surrounds the crater having a depth of 500 meters